VOMITING AGENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS
Agent + (Code)
Diphenyl-Dichloroarsine (DA)
Adamsite (DM)
Diphenylcyanoarsine (DC)
Form at 68oF
White to brown solid Yellow to green solid White to pale solid
Odor
None None Bitter almond-garlic mix
Persistence at
70-90oF

1 - 2 hours 1 - 2 hours 1 - 2 hours
Persistence at
40-60oF
2 - 4 hours 2 - 4 hours 2 - 4 hours
Onset of
Symptoms
Rapid Very rapid Very rapid
Symptoms of
Skin Exposure
Toxic through inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. Dispersed as an aerosol, irritates eyes but not necessarily the skin. DM has been noted to cause necrosis of corneal epithelium in humans.
Symptoms of
Inhaled Exposure
Irritates respiratory tract. Vomiting agents can cause great discomfort. Symptoms include irritation mucous membranes, coughing, sneezing, severe headache, acute pain and tightness in the chest, nausea, and vomiting. The human body will detoxify the effects of mild exposures within 30 minutes of evacuation. Severe exposures may take several hours to detoxify and minor sensory disturbances may persist for up to one day.
LD50 Skin Dose
mg/man
LCt50 Inhaled
Dose mg-min/m3

variable, average 11,000
Fatality
When released indoors, can cause serious illness or death.
First Aid
Inhalation: move victim to fresh air; wear a mask/respirator in spite of coughing, sneezing, salivation, and nausea; lift the mask from the face briefly, if necessary, to permit vomiting or to drain saliva from the facepiece. Eye Contact: don a respiratory protective mask. Skin Contact: rinse nose and throat with saline water or bicarbonate of soda solution; wash exposed skin and scalp with soap and water and allow to dry on the skin; dust the skin with borated talcum. Ingestion: carry on as vigorously as possible; this will help to lessen and shorten the symptoms. In all cases, except ingestion unless necessary, seek medical attention.


LD50 is the dose at which 50% of the exposed population will die.

A different measure, LCt50, is used for inhalation, the product of the concentration (C) and the length of exposure (t). Effective dosages for vapor are estimated for exposure durations of 2-10 minutes.


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Contents 2001-2002 Holly Deyo. All rights reserved.