PROTECTIVE MEASURES

During fallout deposition, all windows, doors and nonvital vents in sheltered locations should be closed to prevent fallout particle from entering the shelter.

When radiation levels become measurable inside the shelter, make a survey of all shelter areas to determine the best protected locations. Repeat this procedure periodically. This information should be sued to limit the exposure of shelter occupants by locating occupants in areas with lowest levels of radiation. Experience and research have shown that if exposure is kept below a certain level, medical care will not be required for the majority of people.



SYMPTOMS OF RADIATION INJURY

Radiation caused injury to body tissue. If exposure is kept below lethal limits, the body is able to repair most of this injury over a period of time. Observable symptoms of radiation sickness are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, listlessness, and a general felling of fatigue. Some or all of these symptoms may appear within the first three days. They may then disappear, reappearing after a week or so, sometimes accompanied by bloody diarrhea and swelling of the nasal passages, mouth and throat. Generally speaking the greater the exposure, the earlier the symptoms will appear and they will be more severe and last longer. Radiation sickness is not contagious; a person cannot "catch" radiation sickness from another person.

The severity of effects on individuals exposed to the same amount of radiation will vary widely. However, the following are estimated short-term effects on humans of external gamma exposures of less than one week.

TOTAL EXPOSURE
VISIBLE EFFECT
0 - 50R
No visible effects.
50 - 200R
Brief periods of nausea on day of exposure. 50% may experience radiation sickness (nausea and vomit), 5% may require medical attention, no deaths are expected.
200 - 400R
Most members of the group will require medical attention because of serious radiation sickness. 50% deaths within 2 - 4 weeks.
450 - 600R
Serious radiation sickness in all members of the group, medical attention required. Death to more than 50% within 1 - 3 weeks.
Over 600R
Severe radiation sickness. 100% deaths within 2 weeks.



CARE OF RADIATION CASUALTIES

If a person becomes ill from exposure to radiation, he should be placed under the care of a physician or medical technician, if possible. In the postattack situation, medical care may be very limited. Care consists primarily of keeping the patient comfortable and inactive. Keep the patient clean and isolated from infectious diseases. The ill person should have liquids to replace the body fluids lost as a result of vomiting and diarrhea as soon as he can tolerate them. Nourishing foods should be given the patient since the are needed for recovery.

IN AN EMERGENCY THE ABOVE GUIDANCE IS ADEQUATE FOR DETERMINING THE BEST AVAILABLE SHELTER AREA AND EXPECT VISIBLE EFFECT OF RADIATION INJURY. AFTER THE INITIAL READINGS ARE TAKEN THE "HANDBOOK FOR RADIOLOGICAL MONITORS SHOULD BE USED TO OBTAIN ADDITION INFORMATION. A COPY OF THIS HANDBOOK IS LOCATED WITH THE INSTRUMENTS.