NWSS Contents
Cover

Edition Notes

Table of Contents
Foreword

Buy NWSS Book

About the Author

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Ch 1: The Dangers from Nuclear Weapons: Myths and Facts

Ch 2: Warnings and Communications

Ch. 3: Psychological Preparations

Ch. 4: Evacuation

Ch. 5: Shelter, the Greatest Need

Ch. 6: Ventilation and Cooling of Shelters

Ch. 7: Protection Against Fires and Carbon Monoxide

Ch. 8: Water

Ch. 9: Food

Ch. 10: Fallout Radiation Meters

Ch. 11: Light

Ch. 12: Shelter Sanitation and Preventive Medicine

Ch. 13: Surviving Without Doctors

Ch. 14: Expedient Shelter Furnishings

Ch. 15: Improvised Clothing and Protective Items

Ch. 16: Minimum Pre-Crisis Preparations

Ch. 17:
Permanent Family Fallout Shelters for Dual Use


Ch. 18: Trans-Pacific Fallout

NWSS Appendices

App. A: Instructions for Six Expedient Fallout Shelters

App. A.1: Door-Covered Trench Shelter

App. A.2: Pole-Covered Trench Shelter

App. A.3: Small-Pole Shelter

App. A.4: Aboveground, Door-Covered Shelter

App. A.5: Aboveground, Ridgepole Shelter

App. A.6: Aboveground, Crib-Walled Shelter

App. B: How to Make and Use a Homemade Shelter-Ventilating Pump

App. C: A Homemade Fallout Meter, the KFM

App. D: Expedient Blast Shelters

App. E: How to Make a Homemade Piston Pump

App. F: Providing Improved Ventalation and Light

Selected References

Selected Index

Graphics

   
Nuclear War Survival Skills
  Home    by Cresson Kearny 

Selected Index

 • Definitions and expla...
 • Occupancy field tests of expedient shelters,...


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Definitions and explanations of terms are given on the listed pages. Because some terms are mentioned on up to 55 different pages, all pages on which some terms are listed are not included.

For broad categories of information, see the Contents page.

 

Abnormalities from radiation, 16, 43, 44

Aerosol filters for biological warfare, 272

Air burst, 15, 16

Air pumps, see KAP, also see ventilation

Air-slap of an air-blast wave, 259

Alpha radiation (or particles), and protection against, 44

Anhydrite, 26, 219

Atoms, radioactive, 12, 43, 44

Attack Warning Signal, 23

Attenuation of radiation, 14, 39

Auroras, artificial, 20

 

Batteries, conserving, 26, 100, 101

Beliefs, false re nuclear war, 5

Benches and bunks for shelters

expedient, 117, 118

permanent, 144, 145

Bequerel (Bq), 96

Beta bums, and prevention of, 43, 44, 130, 131

Beta radiation (or particles), and protection against, 43, 44, 130

Biological warfare aerosol filters, 272

Biological weapons, 8

Blast

areas, 29, 31, 243

doors, 252-255

effects, 15, 16, 28, 64

effects at distances from GZ, 28

injuries to eardrums and lungs, 252

negative phase (or negative pressure), 254-257

positive phase (or overpressure), 16, 65, 252

protector logs, 253-255

tests, 61

valve, expedient, 256, 257

wave, 24

wind, 63, 64

wind erosion, 245

Blindness, flash, 44

Bodies, disposal of, 105

Bombers, enemy, 25

Bq (bequerel), 96

Bucket Stove, 79-82

Burns

from bets radiations (or particles), 43, 44, 130

from heated air, 45

from the popcorning effect, 44, 45

from thermal pulse (heat rays) causing flash burns, 43, 44

of the eye, 44

Bursts, nuclear

air, 15

high altitude, 20

surface, 11

 

Cancer from gamma radiation (ray) doses from trans-Pacific fallout, 152

risk estimates, 110, 111, 152-154

Candle-lamps, 149

Candles, 149

Canopies over entries, 41, 158, 159

Car, loading for evacuation, 34

Carbon dioxide, dangers from

fires, 61

respiration (exhaled breath), 53, 56

Carbon monoxide, dangers from

candles, 149

fires, 56, 61, 64, 65, 138, 148

smoking, 53

Cesium, radioactive, 76

cfm (cubic feet per minute) of air needed, 51-53, 59, 60

Chair, Bedsheet, 119-124

Chemical weapons, 8

Chernobyl disaster, 112, 152-154

Chimney effect (for ventilation), 51, 52

Chinese test explosion's worldwide fallout, 151, 152

Civil defense

American (budget only), 6

Chinese, 58, 63, 71, 248-252

Russian, 6, 7, 18, 56, 57, 65

Swiss, 6

Clothing and footwear, expedient

beta burns, protection against, 43, 44, 130, 131

cold weather, 125-127

keeping warm without fire, 129

mask, fallout, 130, 131

rainwear, including rain chaps, 129

sandals, 129, 130

winter footwear, 127, 128

Cooking and heating in a permanent shelter, 148, 149

Cooking, expedient

Bucket Stove, 79-82

Fireless Cooker, 82, 148

grain and beans, 82,83

wheat balls and corn balls, 148, 149

Crater of explosion, 11, 12

Crisis

evacuation, 6, 31

preparations made during, 6

simulation during field tests, 36

Cuban Missile Crisis, 5

Cutting trees and poles, 157, 158

 

Decay, radioactive, 12, 13

Defense Nuclear Agency blast tests, 68, 244

Diarrhea, 77

Diets, see Food

Digging with pick and shovel, 156

Directional Fanning (ventilation)

importance of, 58

instructions, 59, 60

Distillation of water, 72

Doors, blast, expedient, 252-255

Dose, radiation, 12, 30, 39, 110, 111 Dose rate, radiation, 12, 13

Dose rate meters (survey meters), 12, 94 commercial sources, 96, 97

homemade, see KFM

war reserves of, 95

Dosimeters, 12, 94, 95

commercial sources, 96, 97

war reserves, 95

Dragging logs and poles, 157

Dresden firestorm, 65

 

Earth arching, 42

Earth rolls (earth-filled rolls), 156, 157

EBS (Emergency Broadcasting System), 23

Effective Temperature (ET), 52, 53

Electric power vulnerabilities, 23, 24, 47, 72

Electromagnetic pulse (EMP)

effects, 23, 24

NAWAS, unprotected against

EMP, 22 protection against, 23, 26

Emergency Broadcasting System (EBS), 23

Emergency operating Center (EOC), 23

EMP, see electromagnetic pulse

End of mankind propaganda, 5, 11, 16-19

Entrance (entryway) cover, 275, 276

Entries, vertical, for shelters,

expedient, 41, 174, 175, 249-252

permanent, 142-144, 273-275

280

ET (Effective Temperature), 52, 53

Evacuation, 27-35

by car, 34

check list, 32, 33

during crisis, 6, 31

spontaneous, 31

whether to, 31, 32, 47

Exit, emergency, 142-144

Exit housing, multi-purpose, 273-275

Exotic weapons, 8

"Expedient", definition of, 5

 

Fallout

attenuation (by shielding) of fallout radiation, 16, 39

beta burns from fallout, 43

clouds, 28, 55

clouds, stabilized, 27, 28

decay (of fallout radiation dose rate), 12, 43

deposition, times required for, 12, 13, 55

extent of, 25

high-risk areas, 29

highest-risk areas, 29

local, 15

origins of, 12

particles, 12, 43, 54, 55

patterns, 27

Trans-Pacific, 113, 151-154

weathering of, 13

Fallout masks, expedient, 130, 131

Fallout (radiation) meters, see Dose rate meters, also see Dosimeters

Famine relief by trucked grain, 74

Fear, 20

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 6

FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), 6

Fertility after nuclear war, 16, 76

Field tests (families building expedient shelters), 35, 36-42, 50, 155

Filter, and homemade filter box, 271, 272

Fire

carbon dioxide, fire-caused dangers, 61

carbon monoxide, 53, 54, 56, 61

causes of, 64

dangers, relative, 61, 64

easily ignitable materials, 14

forest and brush, 61

homes, 48, 62

oxygen depletion by, 61

protective measures, including whitewashing, 61, 63

secondary causes after blast, 61, 64

thermal radiation (ignition from fireball), 61, 62

urban, 61, 65

Fireball, 11, 15, 44, 61, 62

Fireless Cookers, 82, 148

Firestorms, 14, 61, 65

Flash blindness, 44

Flash burns, 44

Food

baby foods, emergency, 89-91

basic survival ration to store, 88, 89, 147

contamination by fallout, and decontamination, 16

expedient processing, 77-79

flotation, of grain hulls, 78

grain and bean diets, 83-85, 88, 89

loss of animals, 75

meat, precautions post-attack, 75

minimum needs, 75, 76

multi-year storage, foods for, 88

nutrients, essential, expedient ways to provide

animal protein, minimum requirement, 87

fat, 87

iron, 87

niacin and calcium, 86, 87

vitamin A, 86

vitamin C, 84-86

vitamin D, 86

one year supply, 146-148

requirements, daily, 84, 85

reserves in U.S., 87, 88

salt requirements, 53, 66, 83-86, 92

sieving husks from flour and meal, 78

sprouting, 85, 86

storage, 88-92, 105, 146

survival ration, basic, to store, 88, 89, 147

Footwear, expedient, 127-129

Furnishings for shelters

Bedsheet-Chair, 124

Bedsheet-Hammock, 119-123

benches, seats, and bunks, 117, 118, 144

 

Gamma radiation (rays), 14, 38-40, 94

Genetic damage from radiation, 16

Glass windows, dangers from, 24, 25

Grain mills

expedient, 77

hand-cranked, 148

Grains, grinding with farm machinery, 78

Gray (Gy) (unit of absorbed radiation dose), 96

Ground zero (GZ), 15

 

Halving-thickness of shielding material, 13, 14

Hammock, Bedsheet-, 119-123

H-bomb, 43

Help from fellow Americans, 21

Hewing flat, square sides on logs, 253, 255

Hiroshima, 15, 16, 44, 61, 64, 244

survivors, 21

warning, inadequate, 22

Hot-spots of radiation, 55

 

ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), 23-25

sites, 29, 30

"In Time of Emergency", 45, 57

Infection prevention, 103-107

Initial nuclear radiation (from fireball), 15, 257-259

Insects, control by screens, etc., 51, 101, 104, 106, 141

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), 23-25

Iodine, tincture of, as prophylactic on skin, 116

Iodine, radioactive, 60,72, 111-115, 152-154

 

KAP (Kearny Air Pump), expedient advantages proven by tests, 50-54

instructions, complete, for making and using, 193-212

KFM (Kearny Fallout Meter), expedient dose rate meter advantages proven by tests, 97-99

instructions, complete with patterns, for making and using, 213-239

instructions, with tabloid layout sheet, for tabloid reproductions of the KFM instructions, 241-242

needed materials and tools: only those found in millions of homes, 97, 218, 219

untrained Amen cans who have made KFMs, 97, 99, 194

Kearny Air Pump, see KAP

Kearny Fallout Meter, see KFM

KI cc Potassium iodide

Kiloton (KT), 17

 

Lamps, commercial, 101

Lamps, expedient, 101, 102

Life-support equipment for shelters, 45

Light for shelters

candles, 101, 149

electric, with batteries and bulbs, 100, 101

daylight, through exit housing, 275

for permanent shelter, 149, 150

lamps, expedient, 101, 102

minimum needed, 100

Log dragging, 157

 

MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction), 6

Mask, expedient, fallout and dust, 43, 54, 130, 131

281

Megaton (MT), 14

Midgetman, 55

MIRV, Multiple Independently-targeted Reentry vehicle, 27

Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), 6

Myths about nuclear war, 11-19

 

Nagasaki, 13, 15-17, 21, 44, 243

National Academy of Sciences, findings and recommendations, 16, 53, 54, 110

National Shelter Survey (NSS), 47

National Warning System (NAWAS), 22

Nausea, 65

Navy shelter-occupancy tests, 52, 53

NAWAS (National Warning System), 22

Neglect, benign, 108, 109

Neutron warheads, 8

NSS (National Shelter Survey), 47

Nuclear attacks, types of, 7

Nuclear explosions, limits on destructiveness, 15-17

Nuclear weapons, accuracy and targets, 7

"Nuclear winter" theory, 17-19

 



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Occupancy field tests of expedient shelters, 51, 52, 117-119

Occupancy field tests of permanent shelters, 52, 53, 66, 106

Overkill, 16, 17

Oxygen, lack of, 61

 

Paralysis, emotional, 20, 21

Pellagra, 86

PF (protection factor), 14, 29, 42, 134

Picocurie, 154

Plutonium, 43

Poles and logs, cutting and dragging, 157, 158

Popcorning effect, skin burns, 44, 45

Population relocation (crisis evacuation), 6, 31

Potassium iodide (KI)

doses for thyroid protection during and after nuclear war, 113, 114, 116,

doses for thyroid protection during and after peacetime nuclear accidents, 111-113, 116

expedient ways to prepare and take, 115, 116

FDA official patient information, 112, 113

prophylactic use for protection against Trans-Pacific fallout, 152, 153

ways to obtain, 114

Protection factor (PF), 14, 29, 42, 134

"Protection in the Nuclear Age", 45, 57

psi (pounds per square inch), 15

Psychology of Survival, 20, 21

Public shelters, 47, 48

Pump, Double-Action Piston, instructions for making and ventilating shelters with, 261-270

Punkah (fan), 50

 

R (roentgen), 94, 110

Rad, 110

Radiation doses

delayed effects, 13

genetic injuries from, 16

lethal, 13, 94

lifetime risks from, 110, 111

non-incapacitating, 13

whole-body, 13

Radiation meters for measuring fallout

commercially available models, 96

critical need for, 94

KFM (expedient), see KFM

maintenance and calibration of factory made meters, 97

war reserves, 95

warnings to buyers, 95

Radiation sickness, 110, 111

Radiation world wide effects, 110

Radioactive decay, 12

Radios, how to keep operating, 26

Rain-outs (of fallout particles), 29, 55

Rainwear, 129

Rem, 110

Respiratory diseases, control of, 107

Risk areas, high, highest, 29-31

Roentgen (R), 94, 110

Runways, long, targeted, 24

Russian civil defense, 6, 7, 18, 56, 57, 65

 

Salt requirements, 53, 66, 83-86

Sanitation in shelters, expedient

disposal of corpses, 105

disposal of excrement and urine, 104, 105

disposal of vomit, 105

food, 105, 106

insect control, 104, 106, 141

personal possessions, 106

Scavenging of fallout particles, 55

Screens, insect, 44, 106, 141

Scurvy, 84, 85

SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative), 5

Seeds to Store, 92, 93

Shelter Survey, National (NSS), 47

Shelter types, advantages and disadvantages of, 47-49

Shelters

as post-attack homes, 273-276

needs often overlooked, 150

practice living in, 150

Shelters, blast, expedient, 7, 49

construction principles, 245-255

doors, 252-255

entryways, 242-252

increasing importance of, 243

tests of, 244-246, 248

ventilation, 255

Shelters, blast, permanent, 7, 49

Shelters, fallout, against beta and alpha radiation (particles), 43, 44

Shelters, fallout, expedient, 7

basement, 45, 46

building experiments, 36-42

building instructions, general, 155-159

Car-Over-Trench, 54

earth-covered (shielded), 35, 36, 47-49, 65

instructions, detailed, for six types, see Contents page

snow-covered (shielded), 48, 158

Shelters, fallout, official civil defense (FEMA) instructions, 45

Shelters, fallout, permanent, 7

Shelters, fallout, permanent family, 134-150

Shelters, fallout, public, 47, 48

Shielding

barrier, 39

geometry, 39, 40

Shielding materials, halving thicknesses, 13, 14

Shock wave (blast wave), 44

Sievert (Sv) (dose equivalent), 96

Skin diseases, prevention of, 106, 107

Skyshine, 39, 41

SLBM, targets of and arrival times, 23-25, 31

Snow for shielding, 158

Snow-outs (of fallout), 55

Soviet nuclear strategy, 27

Star Wars, 5

Stove, expedient, for cooking and heating, 79-82

Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), 5

Strontium, radioactive, 76

Submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and targets of, 23-25, 31

Surface burst, 11

Survey meters (dose rate meters), 12, 94, 96, 97

Surviving without doctors (self-help), 108-116

Sv (Sievert) (dose equivalent), 96

Swiss civil defense budget, 6

 

Tactical warning, 22, 24

Targets, probable, 16, 29, 31

Television and EMP, 23, 24

Temperature, effective, 52

Terror, 20

Thermal (heat) radiation from fireball ignitions by, 14,61-63

other effects, 44

protective measures, 61-63

282

Thirst, 66

Three Mile Island accident, 152

Thumb-test for stable earth, 155

Thyroid abnormalities, damage to

Marshall Islanders, 111

by other exposures to radioactive iodine, 111, 152

Thyroid abnormalities, prevention of by means other than prophylactic potassium iodide, 115, 116

by prophylactic potassium iodide, see Potassium iodide

Toilets, expedient, 103, 104

Toxins, bacterial, 75

Transistors, EMP damage, 26

Tree felling, 157

Trench digging, 156

Tunnel shelters at Nagasaki, 15

 

Ultraviolet, post-attack, exaggerations of dangers, 17

Urination and water, minimum needs, 66

 

Ventilation, shelter, safe times for stopping, 272

Ventilation-cooling of shelters

cold weather, 53

cooling before occupying, 54

filtered sir, 54

forced, by expedient air pumps, see KAP, also see Directional Fanning, also see Appendix E

hot weather, 52, 53

inhalation dangers, 54, 55

natural, 53

need for shelter air pumps, 193, 194

requirements, 50-53, 56

through multi-purpose exit housing, 273, 274

warnings re official instructions, 56-58

without filters, 54

Vitamins, expedient ways to provide

niacin, 86, 87

vitamin A, 86

vitamin C, 84-86

vitamin D, 86

Vomiting, 104

 

Warnings of attack, 22-25

given by the attack itself, 23-25

how to respond to, 25

NAWAS, 22,23

types of, 22

Water, 66-74

bags, expedient, for carrying and storing, 66-68

bail-can for wells, 71

disinfecting

boiling, 70

chlorine bleach, 69, 70

tincture of iodine, 2%, 70

filtering, including removal of radioactivity, 71-74

minimum needs, 66

permanent shelter, supplies for, 145, 146

requirements, 66

salt needs with, 66

siphoning, 69, 70

sources, 71

storage pits, 66

storing for years, 145

storing in expedient containers, 67-69

Weathering effects, reducing fallout hazards, 13

Windows, dangers from shattered glass, 24, 25

 

X-rays, 12, 13




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